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Barley. A cereal (Hordeum vulgare) whose grains (q.v.) are composed of about 65% starch (q.v.), 7-12% protein (q.v.), 6-8% hemicellulosic (q.v.) materials, and 2-3% lipids (q.v.). Its major commercial use, aside as an animal feed, is as the principal grain for malt (q.v.), produced by germinating (q.v.) and drying the cereal, which serves as a basic raw material of beer brewing and alcohol (q.v.) distillation and finds application in various food preparations. In baking, malt represents a convenient source of amylolytic enzymes (q.v.) for the enzymatic supplementation of flour and of dough.