Chocolate. The solid or plastic mass, dark-brown in color, that contains some 52-54% of fat in the form of cacao butter (q.v.). It is derived from chocolate liquor (q.v.) which, in turn, is produced by finely grinding the roasted cocoa nibs (q.v.). To make chocolate for consumer use, the chocolate liquor is modified by additions of sugar, surfactants (q.v.), and possibly cacao butter (q.v.), spices (q.v.) or other flavoring materials to yield sweet chocolate, and of milk to yield milk chocolate. Full flavor development and smooth texture in chocolate are achieved by conching (q.v.), a process in which the chocolate liquor is mixed slowly for prolonged periods at elevated temperatures.