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Dough Development. The formation in dough of a gluten-starch matrix with the requisite viscoelastic (q.v.) and cohesive (q.v.) characteristics. The dough is formed from flour and water by a mixing (q.v.) action that exceeds certain critical limits of mixing speed and energy input and involves both physical interactions and chemical reactions. For optimum development, the process, as practiced conventionally, involves a lengthy bulk fermentation (q.v.) stage, but this may be accelerated either chemically, as in activated dough development (q.v.), or mechanically, as in the Chorleywood Bread Process (q.v.).