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Fermentation Period. The time taken by a mixed dough (q.v.) to achieve optimum chemical, biological and physical conditioning that takes place within the fermenting dough and is brought about principally by the yeast (q.v.), but also by other microorganisms (q.v.) and such additional agents as enzymes (q.v.), oxidants (q.v.) and reductants (q.v.), etc. The duration of fermentation is influenced largely by the makeup of the fermenting medium and by the extent to which it satisfies the requirements of the yeast organism in terms of nutrition, temperature, moisture, and other environmental factors.