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Patent Flour. A designation applied to the best commercial grades of flour (q.v.), either of soft wheat (q.v.) cake flours or of hard wheat (q.v.) bread flours, that represent extraction rates (q.v.) of less than 72%, which is normally that for a straight flour (q.v.). They are further differentiated into such additionally higher grades of refinement as fancy or first patent (q.v.), short patent, medium patent, and others, which, in the ascending order, represent variably higher levels of endosperm purity, with their corresponding lower ash values (q.v.) and whiter colors. They may also be designated by percentage ratings, such as 60%, 70%, or 80% patent flour, which indicate the proportion which the particular patent flour represents of the total or straight grade flour (q.v.) yield.