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Pumpernickel. A rye bread (q.v.) variety that is traditionally made of medium coarse-ground whole rye meal (q.v.) and has a very dark and dense crumb (q.v.) and an aromatic sweet or sweet-sour flavor. A typical formula for American type pumpernickel calls for 24% clear wheat flour (q.v.) and 76% rye flour or meal, 10% of sour dough (q.v.), 2% yeast (q.v.), and 1% each of malt (q.v.) and shortening (q.v.). Baking is done in covered pans at 212¦ to 338¦ F (100¦ to 170¦C) for periods ranging from 10 to 24 hours.