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Specific Gravity. The ratio of the weight of a given volume of any substance to the weight of an equal volume of some other substance taken as the standard, water (q.v.) being usually the standard for liquids and solids, and hydrogen (q.v.) for gases. With the specific gravity (sp.gr.) of water serving as the standard unit of 1.0, substances heavier than water will have higher values, and substances lighter than water will have lower values. Thus, cake batters (q.v.) will range in their specific gravities from 0.46 for sponge cake (q.v.), 0.83 for pound cake (q.v.), to 0.95 for white cake (q.v.).