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Tempering. (a) Wheat: The treatment of wheat (q.v.) with water prior to its milling (q.v.) to promote the clean and effective separation of the bran (q.v.) portion from the endosperm (q.v.) of the kernels (q.v.). (b) Shortening : Holding a fat (q.v.) at a certain temperature for a specified time period to stabilize the crystal structure of its solid triglycerides (q.v.) in that form that possesses higher melting points (q.v.) and that improves the fat's functional characteristics. (c) Chocolate: The treatment of chocolate (q.v.) intended as a coating (q.v.) or topping (q.v.) for such products as cupcakes (q.v.), graham crackers (q.v.) and cookies (q.v.). It involves melting the chocolate at a temperature of 110¦ to 120¦F (43¦ to 49¦C), then cooling it under constant agitation to 83¦ to 88¦F (28¦ to 31¦C), and rewarming it again for the enrobing process. Such treatment stabilizes the chocolate so it will yield stable, attractive coatings.