KANSAS CITY – The Food and Drug Administration took a hard look at gluten-free labeling, trans fat and acrylamide during the year – and new regulations posed new challenges for bakers.

With the F.D.A.’s conclusion that partially hydrogenated oils no longer belong on the list of ingredients generally recognized as safe, some baking companies questioned how product quality may be affected.

Baked foods, including bread, crackers and breakfast cereal, also were a focus of new F.D.A. guidance aimed at reducing acrylamide in the food supply.

“Acrylamide reduction is an area of ongoing research, and some approaches discussed may be at a research stage rather than in general use,” the guidance said. “We recommend that manufacturers evaluate approaches that may be relevant to their particular products and consider adopting approaches, if feasible, that reduce acrylamide in their products.”

Click for a slideshow of the year’s top regulatory news.