Whole grains
Bakers must decide how much whole grain to include in a formulation.

The impact on processing

Bakers must decide how much whole grain to include in a formulation. Less than 25% will have minor impacts on fermentation time, loaf volume and cell structure, but the products will offer fewer nutritional benefits and may not be noticeable to consumers.

“You start to get to 50% replacement of your white flour with some of these whole grains, and you’re going to have to start adjusting process,” Mr. Strouts said in his presentation at the IBIE. “You may need to adjust mixing time, you need to rehydrate, you need to move your absorption up significantly, but it’s going to be more noticeable to your consumers, so that becomes the tradeoff.

“If you go to 100%, obviously you’re going to see the most impact on process, but it may give the best presentation to your consumer.”

Mr. Ward said there are some things formulators should keep in mind when formulating whole grain products.

“There are quite a number of ingredients that can be used to add or enhance flavor,” he said. “Some of those also have an impact outside of the flavor realm. Salt enhances flavor. It also strengthens the gluten matrix in wheat-based dough and it has a retarding effect on yeast activity. Cinnamon also retards yeast activity as will sugar at higher levels. Garlic and to a lesser extent onions have a negative impact on the gluten matrix in a dough system.

“With regard to flavor systems, in my experience, more isn’t always better. I tend to err on the side of just enough to pick up on the flavor rather than getting hit over the head with it. Those are just a few things to keep in mind. I encourage anyone developing a formula to learn all that he or she can around the ingredients being considered as it may make life less
complicated down the road.”

Sweeteners also may be used to manage flavor and flavor development, but, like other ingredients, different sweeteners may have different effects on finished products.

“Typically, sucrose gives you what I would describe as a clean sweetness without an associated flavor, while something like honey will provide sweetness, but contribute specific flavor notes as well,” Mr. Ward said. “Those flavor notes can vary with the source of the honey. Another example would be fruit juices or concentrates. These certainly provide sweetness although at a lower level than sucrose, but there is the fruity flavor that accompanies them.”


Whole grains
Sprouting grains results in a sweeter, milder flavor and enhances the enzymatic activity of the wheat.

Sprouting grains is another option, which results in a sweeter, milder flavor and enhances the enzymatic activity of the wheat, improving shelf stability.

“There are both wet and dry products out there that have been sprouted, and you can use those in your system,” Mr. Strouts said.

Bakers may choose from a wide range of grains, including Kamut, farro, spelt, triticale, rye, oats. Gluten-free options include corn, rice, millet, sorghum, amaranth, quinoa, teff and buckwheat. Used as a topping, whole grains of larger particle size offer visual appeal and artisanal quality to bread.

“If you want to make something whole grain or multigrain, there are a number of ways to include these different products that don’t have to just be in the dough,” Mr. Strouts said. “Going with something larger as a topical helps to meet that demand, helps to add that product to it, and it really helps to give it the visual that your customers may be looking for.”