Interaction with other ingredients
There are a host of other factors to consider when formulating with chemical leaveners. One is the flour and grains used in the recipe. High-fiber grains tend to be coarse and more difficult to leaven, as compared to refined wheat flour.
“More chemical leavening is needed to lift these heavier textures into a semblance of wheat flour counterparts,” Ms. Livvix said.
With whole grains usually comes an increase in fiber and lipid content.
“Whole grain bakery mixes that require longer shelf life can benefit from the use of larger particle size leavening agents, slower leavening agents and encapsulated sodium bicarbonate,” Ms. Heidolph said.
Another variable to consider is fat type.
“As bakers move from partially hydrogenated oils (phos) to lower-aerating fats that are non-pho, there is a loss of aeration due to the fat,” Ms. Heidolph said. “The leavening system, especially the fast-acting type, may need to be increased by as much as 10%.”