WEST LAFAYETTE, IND. — An increase in grain dust explosions were reported at U.S. grain handling, feed manufacturing and biofuel facilities in 2018, but resulting injuries and fatalities were down from the previous year, according to an annual report issued Feb. 21 by Purdue University’s Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering.

There were 12 grain dust explosions in 2018 compared to 7 the previous year and a 10-year average of 8.4 incidents annually, said Kingsly Ambrose, an associate professor of agricultural and biological engineering and the report’s lead author. One fatality and four injuries were attributed to the 2018 explosions, compared to 5 deaths and 12 injuries in 2017. Facilities at which the explosions occurred included two feed mills, two ethanol plants and eight grain elevators.

Mr. Ambrose said many of the 2018 incidents were relatively minor and that the higher number of incidents could likely be tied to an increase in grain production and handling. Still, he said it’s important to take preventive measures that can dramatically decrease the likelihood of grain dust explosions.

“Grain dust acts as a fuel for these explosions, and all it takes is a small spark for ignition to occur,” Mr. Ambrose said. “That’s why it’s critical to keep the facility clean, make sure employees and contract workers are properly trained, and ensure that equipment is properly maintained and in good working order.”

In last year’s explosions, the probable ignition source in three cases was hot machine bearings and sparks, while in nine cases the source could not be confirmed. Grain dust was positively identified as the fuel source in three of the explosions.

Illinois and Iowa each reported two explosions last year, while Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas each reported a single incident. The year’s sole fatality, along with one injury, occurred during a Nebraska grain elevator explosion. The remaining injuries in 2018 occurred at grain elevator explosions in Iowa and Kansas.

The number of grain dust explosions, injuries and deaths in the United States have gradually fallen over the last 40 years, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. From 1976-85, the annual average was 21.7 explosions, 44.1 injuries and 14.3 deaths. Those numbers fell to 13.8, 10.5 and 1.8 from 1986-95, 10.6, 12.6 and 1.6 from 1996-2005 and 9.7, 9.4 and 0.8 from 2006-14.

Mr. Ambrose’s group has been collecting data related to U.S. grain dust explosions since 2012. The full report is available online at https://engineering.purdue.edu/FFP/research/dust-explosions.

For more information about the report, contact Mr. Ambrose at 765-494-6599 or rambrose@purdue.edu