While enzymes’ wide range of label-friendly functionality makes them ideal replacements for some not-so-label-friendly ingredients, they are very sensitive to changes in formulation and process.

“The baking fundamentals still apply when formulating with enzymes, standardizing processing times, dough temperatures and dough and finished product pH will ensure the enzymes are working most effectively,” said John Hinds, innovation center manager, Cain Foods. “Enzymes have specific temperature and pH ranges in which they are most active. Any deviations from those ranges may require an adjustment to the level of enzyme or the specific enzyme used.”

Mr. Hinds pointed out that the amount and type of substrate in the dough system is also important. This cannot influence the type of enzyme as well as the amount.

“For example, if your goal is to produce a finished good that has low or no carbohydrates, you may find that a higher dose of amylase is necessary to reach the desired effect,” he said.

When using enzymes to replace non-label-friendly ingredients, adjustments might need to be made in both formulation or processing to ensure the enzymes are being maximized and not having a negative impact.

“Traditional solutions such as potassium bromate and azodicarbonamide carry their own oxygen supply as part of the molecular makeup, so they don’t depend on added oxygen to work,” said Troy Boutte, vice president of innovation, AB Mauri North America. “However, glucose oxidase is dependent on oxygen to work, and it competes with yeast and wheat lipoxygenase for the available oxygen supply.”

Mix time, dough temperature and even mixer type can have an impact on the amount of oxygen incorporated into the dough for the enzyme to consume.

The type of process using will also have a bearing on how much enzyme to use as time is yet another variable that has an impact.

“If they follow a procedure like a sponge-dough, the process is long and would use a very low enzyme dosage,” said Christina Barsa, certified food scientist and technical sales representative, Enzyme Development Corp. “If they are using a more rapid mix and process, there’s less time for the enzymes to work, so the dosage needs to be higher.”

Time and temperature sensitive processes like fermentation have an impact on enzyme activity. As plant conditions change, operators may need to adapt fermentation time to accommodate the enzymes’ needs.

“Process control is very important when it comes to these challenges, enzymes tend to be more reactive to changes in production than traditional ingredients,” Mr. Hinds said.

This article is an excerpt from the May 2021 issue of Baking & Snack. To read the entire feature on Enzymes, click here.